Newest stories appear first
Race bill unlikely to see action
By Randy Trick, The UW Daily Online,
"A governor's request bill
allowing institutions of higher education to use race as a factor in admissions decisions
will likely die today from lack of support.
"The race consideration bill,
which had hearings in both the House and the Senate, will not make the deadline, say
lawmakers. The bill seeks to repeal part of Initiative 200 which ended
affirmative action [racial preferences and quotas] in the state in 1998.
"Senate Bill 6268, received a
favorable hearing in the Senate Higher Education Committee, and was approved there.
However, the bill then transferred to the Judiciary Committee, chaired by Bob McCaslin,
R-Colfax, where it has not received consideration, and likely will not.
"The House version of the bill
2700, received a much more animated hearing, as opponents of the bill and the original
sponsors of I-200 testified.
"The bill will not receive a
vote in the House Higher Education Committee, chair Phyllis Gutierrez Kenney, D-Seattle.
She said she does not have enough votes in favor of the bill. She is a co-sponsor of the
" 'It's the right thing to
do,' Kenney said. 'I commend the governor for doing that. If you don't try, you never
"Kenney said part of the
reason the bill did not have enough support in her committee is because it is an election
year, and amending an initiative dealing with affirmative action [racial quotas] is tough
to get behind. She suggested that next year a similar bill would have a better prospect.
"At the UW, the impending
defeat of the bill was disappointing to those in the Office of Minority Affairs.
" 'The University made clear
it supports this as a way to improve [forced] diversity,' said Enrique Morales, the
office's assistant vice president in charge of outreach and recruitment. 'While we have
made headway, the legislation would have given us the ability to consider different
backgrounds and experiences based on race and ethnicity.'
"According to Morales, the
debate over the topics like affirmative action [racial quotas] and [forced] diversity are
prone to misunderstanding.
"The issue 'is divisive based
on the ways it can be misunderstood,' said Morales. 'I would like to hope that, while the
bills may be dead, the discussions will continue.'
Last known link:
Critics blast bills allowing race
as factor in admissions
By Florangela Davila
Seattle Times staff reporter (01-29-04)
OLYMPIA, WASHINGTON - "The topic of race - always a contentious and passionate
subject - was that and more at a legislative hearing yesterday on a proposal to once again
allow race to be a factor in state public-college admissions.
"One lawmaker chided some audience members after they applauded loudly against the
bill. 'This is a hearing, not a circus,' said Rep. Phyllis Gutierrez Kenney, D-Seattle.
"... Legislation in the Senate and the House - Senate Bill 6268 and House Bill 2700 -
would amend state law in accordance with last year's U.S. Supreme Court ruling that
defined what admissions policies using race are constitutional - and what policies are
not. The court said race could be a factor as long as it justifies a 'compelling state
interest in student-body diversity.' [Editor's Note: The Supreme Court's June 23, 2003 rulings in Grutter v.
Bollinger and in Gratz v. Bollinger did not require states to consider race as a
factor in student admissions, nor did the high court's rulings overrule state laws
such as Washington's I-200. --Tim Fay.]
" 'This legislation recognizes that maintaining a diverse student body is important
academically, socially and culturally,' said Gutierrez Kenney, the bill's sponsor. 'This
is not about points. This is not about quotas.' [Editor's Note: This is a disingenuous argument. The Supreme
Court's 6/23/03 Michigan rulings did not cite any evidence that "forced
diversity" per se improves academic achievement. -- Tim Fay.]
"At last week's hearing before a Senate subcommittee, speakers favored the bill.
Yesterday's testimony before the House Higher Education Committee included well-known as
well as ordinary voices speaking out against the legislation.
" 'Let's cut right to the chase,' said John Carlson, radio commentator and chairman
of the campaign for Initiative 200, which eliminated the use of race for college
admissions, public employment and contracting. It was approved in 1998. 'The UW - my
alma mater - is leading the charge to bring back racial preferences.' University of
Washington statistics show that blacks and Latinos make up roughly the same percentage of
freshmen as they had in 1998, [Carlson] said. 'The UW has proved that you can use
race-neutral (admissions) criteria to diversify a campus without dividing and selecting
students by race.'
"Tim Eyman, one of the initiative's co-sponsors, said, 'Racial discrimination is
indefensible when used by government.'
"Eyman characterized race-based college-admissions policies as a drug. Voters who
passed I-200, he said, had done an 'intervention.' College officials went 'cold
turkey.' Now college officials 'want to fall off the wagon.'
"Tim Washburn, assistant vice president of UW enrollment services, said the 1998
racial-enrollment statistics should not be used as a benchmark. Those statistics 'did not
mean we had achieved critical mass,' he said, alluding to the court's language.
"Rebecca Saldaņa, speaking on behalf of the King County Bar Association and the
Washington State Hispanic Bar Association, noted that Latinos make up less than 2 percent
of all lawyers in the state. She said the bill would address the inequality.
"But some of the most ardent voices against the bill came from minorities.
" 'I am a child of Cuban parents. So I'm a minority. If you pass this, I could end up
taking the place (in college) of someone more deserving,' David Roman said.
" 'I believe standards should be applied equally,' said Quenton Shaw, who is African
Last known link:
Race-based question draws big,
SCOTT GUTIERREZ THE OLYMPIAN 01-29-04
"A proposal to allow [Washington state] colleges and universities to consider race as
a factor in admissions drew a divided crowd Wednesday, including several critics who
argued it would "gut" a voter initiative passed six years ago. House Bill
2700 would permit state colleges and universities to consider race, color or ethnicity in
the admissions process as a means of building campus diversity. [Editor's Note: In 1998 Washington state
voters overwhelmingly approved Initiative 200 which outlawed consideration of race and
ethnicity n student admissions. This legislation seeks to overturn that
citizen-approved measure. -- Tim Fay.] The legislation, along with a companion bill in the Senate that was
voted out of committee this week, was introduced at Gov. Gary Locke's request.
"In a dynamic committee hearing, several people who led the 1998 campaign to pass
Initiative 200, which outlawed preferential treatment based on race in public employment,
contracting or college admissions, accused legislators of trying to override the will of
" 'Race-neutral policies are working,' said Pat Herbold, King County Republican Party
"But the bill's sponsors point out that the bill would preclude colleges from giving
"points" to applicants based on race or from apportioning a certain amount of
enrollment slots for minority students.
"Supporters say it would follow a U.S. Supreme Court decision last year that ruled
schools could consider race as one of several factors in admissions to promote student
diversity without violating the Constitution.
"Higher education officials stressed Wednesday how important a diverse learning
environment is to preparing students for work in a multicultural world.
" 'We do not think we have achieved the level of diversity, or critical mass, that
would serve our students best,' said Tim Washburn, assistant vice president for enrollment
services at the University of Washington.
"Wednesday's hearing drew a crowd of students and advocates in support of the bill.
On the other side, conservative radio talk show host John Carlson and anti-tax crusader
Tim Eyman testified against the bill, as did several residents.
"Eyman said universities have a "drug addiction" with race-based admission.
"Rep. Phyllis Kenney, D-Seattle, the bill's sponsor and chairwoman of the House
Higher Education Committee, said it doesn't subtract from what voters passed with I-200
because it doesn't allow quotas or decisions based solely on race.
"The bill's fate is uncertain. In the Republican-controlled Senate, Majority Leader
Bill Finkbeiner said Republicans have concerns about the bill.
"Quenton Shaw, a Des Moines comic book writer, testified against the bill, saying he
didn't want it to affect his children. Shaw, who is black, said he doesn't think he is
unique in his opinion.
" 'I don't want them to have to grow up in a world where race is always an issue,'
Shaw said after the hearing."
Last known link:
Amend I-200, affirm affirmative
Seattle Times Editorial 01-25-04
"The Washington Legislature should amend Initiative 200 to permit colleges and
universities to consider race as a factor in admission. Not because it will make a major
difference in practice, but because the current policy is embarrassing and shortsighted.
"Passed by voters in 1998, I-200 prohibits preferential treatment based on race, sex,
color, ethnicity or national origin in public employment, public education or public
"At the time, university officials promised they would continue to strive for a
racially diverse student body because of its value to the educational experience and its
reflection of the real world. Although admissions of minority students dropped initially,
the proportion of minority students to the whole student body is about what it was in 1998
at several schools.
"But Initiative 200 remains an embarrassment and was mentioned by observers as a
troublesome issue in the recent search for a new University of Washington president.
"Companion measures in the House and Senate would amend I-200 to permit consideration
of race as a factor in university admissions. That would be consistent with a recent U.S.
Supreme Court case dealing with the University of Michigan. The court ruled that
consideration of race was constitutional but reversed the university's system of awarding
points for minority status.
"The I-200 amendment, which will not affect public employment or contracting, is
supported by the governor and by lawmakers of both parties.
"The U.S. Supreme Court acknowledged the value of a diverse student body in its
ruling. The Washington Legislature should affirm that value by amending I-200."
Last known link:
Governor, Legislature shouldn't
mess with I-200
By Edward Blum and Roger Clegg
Washington Times Tues., Jan. 27, 2004
"If Gov. Gary Locke has his way, the Legislature will be voting on a bill that would
allow the state's public universities to once again discriminate in favor of some
applicants, and against others, on the basis of race and ethnicity.
"The proposal is bound to generate another polarizing - and, more importantly, a
needless and pointless - public and legislative battle over the issue of racial
preferences in public policy. The voters of Washington have already spoken on this issue:
In 1998, they voted overwhelmingly for Initiative 200, which forbids the state from
treating a person differently based on his or her skin color or ethnic heritage.
"The proposed bill would, as The Chronicle of Higher Education reported,
"effectively gut" I-200.
"Locke is trying to justify his revisitation of this issue by pointing to the Supreme
Court's decisions last summer in the University of Michigan cases.
"But the court's decisions do not support the governor's proposal. In the first
place, the court, in upholding the limited use of race in some university admissions
programs, did not say that such discrimination was mandatory - only that it was
"And Washingtonians have sent a clear message that, even if they are allowed to
discriminate, they don't want to, because it is divisive, unfair and morally wrong.
"The governor's use of the Supreme Court's decision is wrongheaded for another reason
as well. If his proposal were passed, the court's decision nonetheless would actually bar
the University of Washington from abandoning its colorblind admission polices and starting
to use racial and ethnic preferences again.
"This is because the court specifically stated that admissions preferences may not be
used if race-neutral means have not been given "serious, good-faith
"UW has not only considered such race-neutral alternatives since I-200 was passed in
1998, it has actually employed them - and it has done so with abundant success. As a
result of the school's outreach, recruitment and retention programs, the number of
"underrepresented minorities" at UW is back to where it was when the school was
"Therefore, it would be illegal for UW to use racial preferences. Colorblind
admissions policies at UW are working well for everyone.
"According to UW's Web site, before the passage of I-200, African Americans made up
2.9 percent of the 1998 autumn freshman enrollment at the flagship campus, and today it is
virtually the same at 2.85 percent; the Hispanic percentage went from 4.7 percent to 4.34
percent - a drop of fewer than a dozen students.
"In other words, the percentage of Hispanics is within a half a percentage point of
where it was, and the percentage of African Americans is within a tenth of a percentage
"The Supreme Court made clear last summer that racial and ethnic preferences can be
used only as a last resort, only if there is no other way to achieve diversity. We know
that UW cannot meet this test, because it has achieved the same level of diversity without
preferences that it was achieving with them.
"Without a single doubt, therefore, if the University of Washington begins using race
and ethnicity in admissions after being given a green light by the Legislature, a costly
lawsuit will be filed (as it was against the University of Washington Law School a few
years ago). The state will lose, and the taxpayers will foot the bill.
"Moreover, it is also likely that the federal Department of Education's Office for
Civil Rights will threaten to cut off UW's federal money if it re-embraces preferences.
"President Bush personally - as governor and as president - and the rest of his
administration have strongly supported the use of race-neutral means to achieve diversity.
Indeed, they have pointed to the very effective outreach, recruitment and retention
programs like the ones implemented at UW during the past five years as a model approach.
"We at the Center for Equal Opportunity are poised to file a complaint with the U.S.
Education Department if Locke's bill becomes law.
"A final point about the Supreme Court's decision: Justice Sandra Day O'Connor wrote
that she expected that the continued academic progress of African Americans and Latinos
would make the use of preferences unnecessary in 25 years. Thus, the court recognized
these temporary discriminatory policies to be an aberration to the timeless constitutional
principles of equal rights - principles embodied in I-200.
"Instead of overturning those principles, the governor and the Legislature should
concentrate on the educational achievement gaps that still exist between whites and Asians
on the one hand, and blacks and Hispanics on the other. These gaps begin as early as age 3
or 4 for most of these children and continue through high school. Lowering the bar for a
handful of minority students applying to UW does nothing for the thousands of other black
and Hispanic students who graduate from Washington high schools reading at eighth-grade
"Close the gap and there won't be a need to lower the academic bar. That would be a
better solution for everyone."
-- by Edward Blum and Roger Clegg, Center
for Equal Opportunity.
From the Washington
Times 01-27-04 - Last known link:
WA: Race bill
faces tough road
By Randy Trick, UW Daily Online
"Although 24 people made the morning commute to Olympia to speak in favor of a Senate
bill allowing state colleges to use race as an admissions factor, the bill's sponsor says
that show of support does not ensure passage.
" 'The question is if the bill gets to the floor,' said the bill's sponsor, Sen.
Jeanne Kohl-Welles, D-Seattle. Kohl-Welles also lectures part-time at the UW. The Senate
Higher Education Committee passed the bill yesterday after the public hearing. The bill is
now in the Senate Judiciary Committee, and it is the bill's fate there that has
Kohl-Welles and her co-sponsors uncertain.
" 'There are some members of the committee that do not make a point to see the
affirmative action of the last 50 years, but see in vivid color the affirmative action of
the last 10 years,' said Sen. Adam Klein, D-Seattle. Klein is the ranking member on the
Judiciary Committee and a co-sponsor of SB 6268. The bill was introduced at the request of
Democratic Gov. Gary Locke.
"Republican leadership in the Senate has not drafted a formal stance on the bill. 'We
are striving for a color-blind society,' said a statement from Sen. Bill Finkbeiner,
R-Redmond and the Senate majority leader. 'The natural equilibrium bears out when
quotas are not a factor. This is demonstrated with the minority numbers at the UW and WSU
after the passage of I-200. Our caucus has not taken a position.'
"A number of officials from the UW made the morning commute to advocate the bill's
passage. Tim Washburn, assistant vice president of enrollment services, and
President Lee Huntsman told the Senate Higher Education Committee that diversity in the
student body at the UW has suffered since Initiative 200 passed in 1998. I-200 prohibited
affirmative action in the state. [Note:
This is patently false. I-200 did not prohibit affirmative action. In fact, it
guarantees that all of Washington's citizens will be treated equally under the law without
regard to race, gender or ethnicity. --Tim Fay, Adversity.Net]
"ASUW President Brittany Goodnight and Julia Harrison, Graduate and Professional
Student Senate president, also spoke, expressing the importance for students to learn
immersed in a diverse student body.
"Laws allow initiatives to be modified two years after passage. Last year the U.S.
Supreme Court ruled that race may be considered in the admissions process as long as
quotas, set-asides and bonuses are not used. According to Kohl-Welles, the passage
of the bill would bring the state in line with the rest of the nation. Only two
states -- Washington and California -- do not use race as a factor in admissions."
From the "UW Daily Online" - Last
Bills would let race be factor in
college admissions again
Thurs., Jan. 22, 2004
By Florangela Davila Seattle Times staff reporter
"Gov. Gary Locke is supporting the first major change to Initiative 200, so public
colleges and universities could, once again, use race as one factor in admissions.
"A state Senate bill, the subject of a public hearing in Olympia this morning, would
modify language in state law to be consistent with last year's U.S. Supreme Court ruling.
"In its controversial and narrowly approved University of Michigan law-school
decision, the Court said race could be a factor in admission as long as it justifies a
'compelling state interest in student-body diversity.'
"Supporters say the bill, and a companion bill in the House, would amend but not
abolish I-200, which three of five state voters approved in 1998. The initiative
eliminated racial and gender preferences in public employment, contracting and college
"The proposed changes aren't 'about set-asides or numerical quotas,' said
Jeanne Kohl-Welles, D-Seattle, the bill's sponsor in the Senate. We allow
institutions to use different factors for admission, say if a student is an athlete. This
is just a tool so we can get the most capable, quality students.'
"But Seattle-area attorneys Harry Korrell and Russ Brooks argue such legislation
would unfairly award admissions preferences to some students and not others.
" 'As soon as we get away from thinking about people in terms of their race or color,
the better off our society will be,' said Korrell, who is representing a group of parents
fighting a Seattle School District race-based assignment policy.
"Senate Bill 6268 and its companion, House Bill 2700, only address admissions to
public colleges and universities.
"The bills would permit admissions policies to consider an applicant's race, color,
ethnicity or national origin to promote diversity as long as:
- No enrollment slots are set aside on the
basis of race.
- All applicants are judged on how they would
contribute to campus diversity.
- Race isn't given a predetermined weight or
points in admissions.
- Institutions periodically review whether
consideration of race is necessary to achieve diversity.
"Initiative 200 was promoted as a civil-rights measure that would create a
'colorblind' society. Opponents, who included a wide swath of elected, business and
education officials, predicted it would be detrimental to the public workplace and college
"Undergraduate enrollment of racial minorities, however, did not drop dramatically,
and at some schools, minority enrollment rebounded to pre-I-200 levels.
"The number of black and Latino students in last year's freshman class at the
University of Washington, for example, has surpassed 1998 levels for both groups. Over the
past six years, the proportion of black and Latino freshmen had dipped, but last year the
percentages were similar to 1998's.
"Racial minorities in 2003, excluding Asian Americans, represented 8.9 percent - or
447 students - of the freshman class.
"The number of black freshmen at Washington State University dropped by 20 students
from 2002 to 2003. But WSU's freshman class now generally mirrors what the
first-year class looked like before 1998. Racial minorities in 2003 represented
13.7 percent - or 415 students - of the freshman class.
"College and university officials had long been waiting for the Supreme Court to
clarify whether race could be an admissions factor, ever since the court permitted race as
a 'plus factor' in the case of Bakke v. the University of California, Davis, in 1978.
"Last summer, the court looked at both undergraduate and law-school admissions at the
University of Michigan. It outlawed the use of a points system that used race but
upheld a more 'holistic' approach that did not consider race in 'a mechanical way.'
"In the fall, more than a dozen deans from the University of Washington urged state
legislators to refine state law to ensure a 'vibrant and challenging learning environment
in higher education.'
"Sen. Don Carlson, R-Vancouver, who supported eliminating racial preferences, is
backing Kohl-Welles' proposal.
" 'It simply allows the admissions department to look at a student as a whole,' said
Carlson, chairman of the Senate Higher Education Committee. 'My only concern is that
the bill is mischaracterized as overthrowing the initiative.'
"State law allows the Legislature to amend a voter-approved initiative two years
after its passage.
"Debora Merle, Locke's higher-education policy adviser, said the proposed changes
would bring state law into compliance with the Supreme Court ruling. Creating campus
diversity would be 'a marvelous side benefit,' she said.
"But Brooks, an attorney with the Pacific Northwest office of the Pacific Legal
Foundation, said voters made it clear in 1998 that they did not want any admissions
decisions made through the prism of race or ethnicity.
" 'It's abhorrent and offensive that the state Legislature would undertake any kind
of effort to thwart the will of the people,' he said.
"Tim Eyman, one of the original co-sponsors of I-200, agreed: 'What is it about 58
percent of the voters who approved the initiative that isn't clear?'
"The Supreme Court ruled only that race can be considered in admissions, not that it
must be, he said."
What the bills would do
"The bills would permit colleges and universities to consider an applicant's
ethnicity or national origin to promote diversity as long as:
- "No enrollment slots are reserved on
the basis of race.
- "All applicants are judged on how they
could contribute to campus diversity.
- "Race isn't given a predetermined
weight in admissions."
From the Seattle Times. Last known link
to the original story:
Locke looks to amend I-200
By Blythe Lawrence, UW Daily Online
"Gov. Gary Locke proposed the
drafting of legislation limiting Initiative 200 yesterday, citing his desire for every
deserving student to have access to higher education, though he said he didn't like the
idea of having to meet quotas.
" 'I don't believe in quotas or 'set asides' at our universities. I believe that
taking into account the composition of ethnicity should be allowed. So I support modifying
Initiative 200 to allow the consideration of race without set-asides or quotas,' Locke
"Locke's announcement comes after a U.S. Supreme Court decision this summer ruling
that the University of Michigan Law School is not able to use racial quotas, but can use
race as a factor in admissions.
be sure to see
for the text of I-200, discussion, and older stories.
"At the same time, however, the Supreme Court ruled that the affirmative-action
policy could not be used as a determinant for who was accepted as an undergraduate.
"The 5-4 Supreme Court ruling also held that graduate schools could not use race as a
factor in the point system that ranked candidates for admission.
"Although the Grutter v. Michigan ruling had no direct impact on schools in
Washington state, the proposed amendment to Initiative 200 would affect admissions to
"According to Kirsten Kendrick of the Governor's Communication Office, Locke is
planning to submit executive-request legislation proposing that schools be able to
consider race in the admissions process.
"Since Initiative 200 was passed in Washington in 1998, state schools have not been
allowed to give preferential treatment to women or racial minorities in education, hiring
"W.H. 'Joe' Knight Jr., dean of the UW law school, has been openly advocating the
repeal of Initiative 200, urging legislators to bring Washington's affirmative-action
regulations closer to the ones laid down by the Supreme Court for Michigan schools. Knight
participated in drafting a brief to the U.S. Supreme Court in Grutter v. Michigan.
Minority enrollment in the law school has dropped since Initiative 200 was enacted in
" 'When it comes to affirmative action, we're behind the rest of the country,'
commented Tim Washburn, assistant vice president for enrollment services. Washburn
said he supported Locke's decision and hoped that the legislation would pass.
"The legislative proposal was also warmly welcomed by state Democratic Rep. Phyllis
Gutierrez Kenney, co-head of the House Committee on Higher Education.
" 'I hope [the bill passes]. I think it's an excellent proposal,' Kenney said
frankly. 'The bill will be modeled after the Michigan decision. What we're doing is
opening the door for equal-opportunity education.'
"Although she would not predict whether the bill would pass, Kenney did said she
expected the bill to be received well in the House. It may face more opposition in the
Senate, which has a Republican majority.
From the "UW Daily Online" - Last
Locke wants I-200 tweaked
The governor tells legislators a diverse
university student body is desirable.
By Lauren Graf
"At the end of the next 60
days, Gov. Gary Locke hopes to see race as a factor in Washington's state university
"Locke publicized his desire to revamp Initiative 200 to allow universities to
consider racial background as a factor when reviewing applications.
" 'I support modifying I-200 to allow for consideration of race without set-asides or
quotas,' Locke said at his first news conference of the planned 60-day legislative session
that started Monday.
"Washington state voters passed I-200 in 1998, prohibiting government entities from
discriminating or granting preferential treatment based on race, sex, color, ethnicity or
"Sen. Jeanne Kohl-Welles, D-Seattle, will be the bill's primary sponsor. Kohl-Welles
began work on the proposed bill in July -- one month after the U.S. Supreme Court ruled
that the University of Michigan Law School's policy of considering race as an admission's
factor furthered 'a compelling interest in obtaining the educational benefits that flow
from a diverse student body.'
"Locke wants to change the law to make it consistent with the high court ruling and
because he believes diversity is important to education.
"The proposed legislation, which is expected to be introduced this month, does not
specify sex as a factor for admissions consideration.
" 'We've been so careful about drafting this using the same language as the U.S.
Supreme Court ruling, there should not be opposition,' Kohl-Welles said.
"In the House, Phyllis Gutierrez Kenney, D-Seattle, will lead the way for the bill in
"Nonetheless, not all members are convinced of the bill's necessity.
" 'If the Supreme Court has spoken on it, and they've clearly spoken on what regents
can do, why do we need more legislation?' asked Rep. Don Cox, R-Colfax, ranking member of
the Higher Education Committee. 'We're not committed that this bill is necessary for the
good of people in our state or the universities that set the policies.'
"Rep. Kirk Pearson, R-Monroe, agreed. 'Personally, I look at everyone as the same. I
don't judge a person by their race.'
"Paul J. Lawrence, partner at the Seattle office of Preston Gates & Ellis LLP,
said the use of quotas has been illegal since the U.S. Supreme Court's 1978 Bakke ruling.
" 'Quota is a word with a lot of baggage that doesn't mean much legally,' said
Lawrence, who, on behalf of more than 100 congressional representatives, filed a
supportive brief with the U.S. Supreme Court in last year's Michigan case.
" 'The real issue is that academic institutions have discretion as to what mix of
people best meet their academic mission. The court held that if you take race as one
factor in connection with others -- such as GPA (grade point average), economic and
geographic diversity -- it is lawful.' "
From HeraldNet - Last known link:
New Links Courtesy
END: I-200 NEW News Jan. 29, 2004