All New 2006 OPM Report!

2006 Edition:  U.S. Office of Personnel Management Report
(6) Definitions and Computations

(Web Posted 6/14/06 -- Adversity.Net 2006)

All New 2006 OPM Report!

Data Coverage and Definitions
(From page 48 of the 2006 OPM FY 2005 report)

OPM Def of Civilian Labor Force (CLF) OPM Definition of Civilian Labor Force (CLF)
OPM Def of Relevant Civilian Labor Force (RCLF) OPM Definition of Relevant Civilian Labor Force (RCLF)
OPM Definition of Underrepresentation OPM Definition of Underrepresentation
OPM Definition of Occupational Categories OPM Definition of Occupational Categories
What does 'underrepresentation' really mean? What Does "Underrepresentation" REALLY Mean? (Adversity.Net discussion)
Commentary Adversity.Net Commentary: Absurd and Self-Serving Definition of "Underrepresentation"
Computations and Math Computations: How Adversity.Net Arrived at It's Numbers

Definition of Civilian Labor Force (CLF): Top
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This Year's Definition
(2006 report covering FY 2005):

Last Year's Definition
(2005 report covering FY 2004):

          "The Civilian Labor Force (CLF) percentages for each minority group presented in this report are derived from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Annual Current Population Survey.   The CPS data cover non-institutionalized individuals 16 years of age or older, employed or unemployed, U.S. citizens and non-U.S. citizens."

[NOTE:  The following key phrase from last year's definition of CLF was significantly omitted from this year's 2006 report:  "Federal data exclude temporary, or term specific workers."  SEE ALSO: The FY 2004 Definition, immediately to the right.]

          "The Civilian Labor Force (CLF) percentages for each minority group presented in this report are derived from the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Annual Current Population Survey.   The CPS data cover non-institutionalized individuals 16 years of age or older, employed or unemployed, U.S. citizens and non-U.S. citizens.  Federal data exclude temporary, or term specific workers."

-- [Source: 2005 report for FY 2004: definition of Civilian Labor Force (CLF).  --Editor.]

Prior Years' Definition of CLF
(2004, 2003 and 2002 covering FY 2003, 2002 and 2001 respectively):

          "The Civilian Labor Force (CLF) data are derived from the Bureau of Labor Statistics September 2003 Current Population Survey (CPS) and the 1990 Decennial Census.  The CPS is a sample of 50,000 households across the nation and the sample changes from year-to-year.   Because of the changing sample, there can be wide fluctuations in a group, like Hispanics, depending on which households are selected.  Because of the small sampling size, the CPS does not have separate counts for Asian/Pacific Islanders or Native Americans.   Each group's percentage representation in the CPS was extrapolated using the 1990 census to calculate their proportional representation from the CPS "Black and Other" category.  The CLF data cover every non-institutionalized individual 16 years of age and older, employed and unemployed, while Federal employment data exclude temporary, intermittent, or term-specific workers.  The CLF data include employed and unemployed U.S. citizens and noncitizens, while the CPDF data [OPM's Central Personnel Data File] are predeominantly Federally-employed U.S. citizens."

-- [Previous definition of Civilian Labor Force (CLF) in 2004, 2003 and 2002.  Editor.]


Definition of Relevant Civilian Labor Force (RCLF): Previous
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This Years' Definition
(2006, covering FY 2005):

Prior Years' Definition
(2005, 2004, 2003 and 2002 covering FY 2004, 2003, 2002 and 2001 respectively):

          "The Relevant Civilian Labor Force (RCLF) is the Civilian Labor Force (CLF) data that are directly comparable (or relevant) to the occupational population being considered in the FW [Federal Workforce].  For example, we would compare Black engineers employed in the Federal workforce with Black engineers in the RCLF.  In this report, the RCLF varies from agency to agency because of the differing occupational mix within each agency.

-- [SAME:   There appears to be no substantive difference between this 2006 definition of CLF and prior year's definitions.  Editor.]

          "The Relevant Civilian Labor Force (RCLF) is the Civilian Labor Force (CLF) data that are directly comparable (or relevant) to the population being considered in the FW [Federal Workforce].   For example, if we were analyzing representation of black engineers employed in the Federal workforce, we would compare them with black engineers reported in the CLF.   The black engineers in the CLF represent the RCLF in this example.  In this report, the RCLF varies from agency to agency because of the differing occupational mix within each agency." 
-- [ No significant change in this definition from 2001 through 2005.  Editor.]

Definition of Underrepresentation: Previous
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          "Underrepresentation, as defined in 5 CFR, Section 720.202, means a situation in which the number of women or members of a minority group within a category of civil service employment constitutes a lower percentage of the total number of employees within the employment category than the percentage that women or the minority group constitutes within the civilian labor force of the United States."
-- [
SAME.  Definition is identical to prior years' definitions.  Editor.]


Definition of Occupational Categories: Previous
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          "Occupational categories discussed in this report are white-collar and blue-collar.   The white-collar category contains Professional, Administrative, Technical, Clerical or 'Other' white-collar occupations.  Professional occupations typically call for a baccalaureate or professional degree and, along with Administrative occupations, are the usual sources for selections to senior management and executive positions.  Positions in Technical, Clerical, Other and blue-collar occupations usually are limited to lower grades with limited opportunity for promotion to management levels.  Advancement in these occupations often depends on individual attainment of further education or advanced skills.  Employment data in this report are presented by occupational category and grade groups to provide a more informative profile."
-- [
SAME.  Virtually identical to prior years' definitions of "Occupational Categories" by OPM.  Editor.]


What Does Underrepresentation Really Mean? Previous
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What does 'underrepresentation' really mean?
Chart from page 9 of the FY 2005 OPM report.
The red notations were added by our editors.
          In this chart from the FY 2005 OPM report, OPM estimates that only 7.4% of the Federal Workforce (FW) is comprised of Hispanics, while 12.6% of the Relevant Civilian Labor Force (RCLF) is comprised of Hispanics.

          OPM wants us to believe that this proves that Hispanics are "underrepresented" and therefore should be given preference in hiring and promotion.

          There are two very good reasons to reject OPM's "underrepresentation" argument, especially as it pertains to Hispanics in the graph above.

          First, the Civilian data used by OPM to compute "underrepresentation" includes non-citizens and unemployed individuals, whereas the Federal data, by definition, includes only employed individuals who are predominantly U.S. citizens.  This chart illustrates the non-comparability of the two sets of data used by OPM:

  FEDERAL WORKFORCE (FW) RELEVANT CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE (RCLF)
U.S. Citizens: YES YES
Non-U.S. Citizens: NO YES
Employed: YES YES
Unemployed: NO YES

          Second, as a matter of philosophy, one must ask why statistical underrepresentation of particular skin colors has any bearing at all on the federal government's employment and promotion policies.  We are a nation which promises equal opportunity based upon effort and merit.   We are not a nation which promises equal results based upon skin color.  Or are we?

Update August 2006:  The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) issued a report to Congress stating in substantial part the following:

          The EEOC and the U.S. Office of Personnel Management should discontinue their practice of counting non-citizen Hispanics in the Civilian Labor Force (CLF).  After all, as GAO helpfully points out in their report, the federal government does not hire non-citizens except in extremely rare instances.

          Furthermore, GAO reports that when U.S. citizenship and level of education are taken into account, Hispanics are 24% MORE likely to be federal employees than non-Hispanics!

          Victory!?  Vindication?   We'll see.  So far, according to GAO's report, both the EEOC and OPM have turned up their noses at the GAO's Aug. 2006 report, but change and rational thought may be in the wind!  Read all about the GAO Report.

GAO Aug. 2006: Do NOT Count Non-U.S. Citizens!
See the August 2006  GAO report which strongly recommends that the feds STOP counting non-citizen Hispanics in calculating racial quotas.
See our
Report

Adversity.Net Commentary Previous
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          OPM pointedly notes that the Code of Federal Regulations (5 CFR 720.202) defines underrepresentation in such a way that white males cannot, by definition, be underrepresented in federal employment and presumably therefore cannot be discriminated against in federal hiring!   Unless, of course, they become a statistical "minority" -- which may eventually happen!

          In fact, in the approximately 50 pages of fine print comprising the OPM report there is not one, single graphic or table illustrating the decline in employment by the feds of white males.

          Equally pointedly, OPM also does not define a concept of overrepresentation whereby hiring too many members of preferred racial groups would be discouraged if not illegal.

          In fact, the 2006 OPM report (covering FY 2005) -- just as the previous 5 years of OPM data Adversity.Net has analyzed -- continue to clearly illustrate that overrepresentation of selected, preferred races (overhiring) by the federal government is the standard hiring practice.

-- Tim Fay, Editor.


Adversity.Net's Computations
Calculating Over and Under Hiring of Minorities Using OPM's Data
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          The percentages in Columns A and B of all of our tables have been computed by OPM and we have duplicated these numbers exactly from OPM's official 2006 report (covering FY 2005).  Columns C and D were computed by Adversity.Net based upon the OPM data in Cols A and B of our tables.

Column A:  OPM data shows 8.4% as the proportion of blacks available in the civilian population for the specific jobs and agency in question (EEOC in this example).  This constitutes a de facto "affirmative action target" (quota) for EEOC.

Column B:  OPM data shows that 44.3% of EEOC's workforce are blacks.

Column C:  This is an intermediate number used in Adversity.Net's calculations and is simply the difference between (A) the "racial target"; and (B) the actual employment of that race by the agency.  In the case of blacks at the EEOC the difference between (A) and (B) is +35.9%

Computation of Column C:
          Col B - Col A = Col C (difference between target "A" and actual employment "B")

Column D:  Using a simple computation, Adversity.Net used OPM's data to show that the percentage of blacks in GSA's workforce is 427.4% higher than the proportion of blacks in the civilian population.  The simple computation is as follows:

Computation of Column D:
( Col C / Col A ) X 100 = Col D (rate of over or under hiring, expressed as a % of the racial 'target' or 'goal' stated in Column A)

In this example, Col. C = 35.9 and Col. A = 8.4.  Using these numbers:

(35.9/8.4) X 100 = 427.4% more blacks work at EEOC than their proportion in the relevant civilian labor force.

          Adversity.Net defines this as "over hiring" of the designated minority group.  OPM, however, does not define "over hiring".


2006 OPM Annual Report to Congress (FY 2005 Hiring Data)
EXAMPLE: Tabulation of Minority Hiring at the U.S. EEOC
Previous
Site Index
  (A)
% in Relevant Civilian Labor Force (RCLF)
(affirmative action target)
(B)
% in Federal Workforce (FW)
(actual % employed by EEOC)
(C)
Difference between target (col A) and actual (col B)
(D)
Rate of OVER (under) hiring selected minority groups by EEOC
Blacks 8.4 44.3 +35.9 +427.4%
Interpretation:  EEOC employed 427.4% more blacks than their proportion in the civilian labor force
Hispanics 6.5 12.9 +6.4 +98.5%
Interpretation:  EEOC employed 98.5% more Hispanics than their proportion in the civilian labor force
Asian Pacific Islanders 4.6 3.5 -1.1 -23.9%
Interpretation:  EEOC employed 23.9% fewer Asian Pacific Islanders than their proportion in the civilian labor force
Native American 0.9 0.5 -0.4 -44.4%
Interpretation:  EEOC employed 44.4% fewer Native Americans than their proportion in the civilian labor force
Women 71.1 67.0 -4.1 -5.8%
Interpretation:  EEOC employed 5.8% fewer Women (of all races) than their proportion in the civilian labor force
  Note 1 Note 1 Note 2 Note 3
Note 1 -- Source: OPM "Annual Report to Congress; Federal Equal Opportunity Recruitment Program FY 2005 (October 1, 2004 - September 30, 2005).  Current link to original OPM report:  http://adversity.net/fed_stats/OPM2006/feorp2005.pdf

Note 2 -- Our computation:  Col (B) - Col (A) = Col (C)

Note 3 -- Our computation:   [Col (C) / Col (A)] X 100 = Col (D)


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More FY 2005 Charts and Excerpts:

FY 2004 OPM Report           FY 2004 OPM Report           FY 2004 OPM Report
A.
OPM FY2005 Minority Hiring
MAIN INDEX

Load/Reload
B.
Five Best Agencies for Minorities
(1)
Blacks
(2)
Hispanics
(3)
Asian - Pacific Islanders
(4)
Native Americans
(5)
Women
(6) Definitions, Math
END: (6) OPM Definitions and Computations FY 2005