Discrimination -- The process by which government-mandated Affirmative
Action policies preclude the color-blind treatment of people on the basis of
their individual merits, and by which such government-mandated requirements prevent
employers from distinguishing qualified applicants from unqualified ones.
Also: The application of government-mandated benefits and penalties to individuals
simply on the basis of their race, color, and national origin.
Synonymous Terms: Affirmative Action Discrimination; Reverse Discrimination; Racial Preferences; Affirmative Action; Racial Preferences.
Background: In 1975 -- 11 years after passage of the original Civil Rights Act in 1964 -- Harvard Professor Nathan Glazer published a ground-breaking book titled "Affirmative Discrimination: Ethnic Inequality and Public Policy".
In his 1975 book, Professor Glazer posited that Affirmative Action (preferential treatment for certain racial and ethnic minorities) precludes the fair and equal treatment of people without regard to their race, ethnicity, or national origin and especially precludes the evaluation of potential employees, college applicants and others on the basis of their individual merits.
Author Glazer further posited that governmental requirements for special treatment and preferences based upon race, gender, national origin or ethnicity are in violation of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, and that such requirements prevent employers from distinguishing qualified applicants from unqualified ones.
In his 1975 book, Professor Glazer wrote that the practitioners of Affirmative Action (racial preferences) violate the principle that each person should be judged on his or her own merits and qualifications and NOT on the basis of the racial or ethnic group to which he or she belongs.
Glazer further argued that so-called "Affirmative Action" policies (in the U.S.) define benefits for arbitrary ethnic groups.
Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act states that: "703 (j) Nothing contained in this title shall be interpreted to require any employer ... to grant preferential treatment to any individual or to any group because of the race, color, religion, sex, or national origin or group on account of an imbalance which may exist with respect to the total number or percentage of persons of any race, color, religion, sex, or national origin employed by any employer ... "
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